Water Treatment

Chitosan is an ideal flocculant for water clarification applications due to its ability to bind to a variety of organic and inorganic particulates [1]. Removal of suspended solids, dyes, heavy metals, and other pollutants is facilitated with chitosan in solution at acidic, neutral, and alkaline pH conditions [2,3]. Aggregation and flocculation by chitosan occurs because of the unique pH-sensitive and strong hydrophilic nature of chitosan. Chitosan can then be removed via filtration or sedimentation; leaving a clarified water behind without any residual toxic chemicals [4].
The removal of microorganisms from suspension also presents a challenge in beverage manufacturing, algal biomass production, and water treatment. Chitosan has been shown to bind directly to the outer cell wall of microorganisms in a range of pH conditions [5,6].
Chitosan is an eco-friendly solution for a wide range of water treatment applications.

[1] Guibal, Eric, et al. “A review of the use of chitosan for the removal of particulate and dissolved contaminants.” Separation science and technology 41.11 (2006): 2487-2514.
[2] Bhatnagar, Amit, and Mika Sillanpää. “Applications of chitin-and chitosan-derivatives for the detoxification of water and wastewater—a short review.” Advances in Colloid and Interface Science 152.1 (2009): 26-38.
[3] Guibal, Eric. “Interactions of metal ions with chitosan-based sorbents: a review.” Separation and purification technology 38.1 (2004): 43-74.
[4] Renault, François, et al. “Chitosan for coagulation/flocculation processes–an eco-friendly approach.” European Polymer Journal 45.5 (2009): 1337-1348.
[5] Divakaran, Ravi, and V. N. Sivasankara Pillai. “Flocculation of algae using chitosan.” Journal of Applied Phycology 14.5 (2002): 419-422.
[6] Cheng, Yu-Shen, et al. “The impact of cell wall carbohydrate composition on the chitosan flocculation of Chlorella.” Process Biochemistry 46.10 (2011): 1927-1933.